With the development of agricultural facilities in the suburbs of Beijing, water-soluble fertilizers have become popular as a new type of fertilizer application, but farmers still lack understanding of them, resulting in the improper application and low efficiency. To this end, we should introduce the precautions for the identification and application of water-soluble fertilizers.
Compared with traditional fertilizers, water-soluble fertilizers have various formulas and flexible application methods. They can be soiled and soiled, so that plant roots can be fully exposed to fertilizers; foliar spray can be used to improve fertilizer absorption and utilization; drip irrigation and soilless cultivation can be used to save irrigation. Water and increase production efficiency. To get the best results from the use of water-soluble fertilizers, the following should be taken.
Choose more profitable crops
At present, special water-soluble fertilizers for vegetables, fruit trees, flowers, grain, cotton, oil, and other crops are sold on the market. However, the price of water-soluble fertilizers is much higher than that of solid fertilizers. Therefore, when selecting crops, it is best to target higher-yielding crops such as strawberries, vegetables, and fruits to obtain the best benefits; Lower, generally, do not apply water-soluble fertilizer (except for spraying potassium dihydrogen phosphate on wheat).
Master fertilization skills
1. Avoid direct application and take a second dilution method. Since the water-soluble fertilizer is different from the general compound fertilizer, it should not be applied according to the conventional method to avoid the phenomenon of burning roots caused by uneven fertilization. The second dilution not only facilitates the uniform application of fertilizer but also improves fertilizer utilization.
2. Strictly control the amount of fertilizer applied. The water-soluble fertilizer has higher nutrient content than the general compound fertilizer, and the amount is relatively small. Because of its fast-acting ability, it is difficult to remain in the soil for a long time, so it is necessary to strictly control the amount of fertilizer to avoid the loss of fertilizer.
3. Try to use it alone or in combination with non-alkaline pesticides. For example, when vegetables are deficient in deficiency or root growth is poor, many farmers use water-soluble fertilizers to alleviate them. Remind farmers that water-soluble fertilizer should be applied alone or mixed with non-alkaline pesticides to prevent metal ions from reacting to produce sediment, causing leaf damage or phytotoxicity.
Reasonable mastery of usage and frequency
1. A small number of multiple administrations. This is the most important principle for the application of water-soluble fertilizers because this method not only meets the characteristics of uninterrupted absorption of nutrients by plant roots but also the characteristics of water-soluble fertilizers that are easily lost. A small number of multiple applications can also greatly improve the utilization rate of water-soluble fertilizer.
2. Pay attention to nutrient balance. Water-soluble fertilizers are generally applied by pouring, spraying or mixing them into the water, followed by irrigation (drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation). It should be reminded here that when using drip irrigation, due to the dense growth and a large number of roots, the dependence on the nutrient supply of the soil is reduced, and more depends on the nutrients provided by drip irrigation. There is a higher requirement for a reasonable proportion and concentration of nutrients. If the formula is not balanced, it will affect crop growth. Besides, water-soluble fertilizer should not be applied with traditional irrigation methods such as flood irrigation or irrigation, to avoid fertilizer waste and uneven application.
3. Safe application to prevent burns on the leaves and roots. Improper application of water-soluble fertilizers, especially when applied together with sprinkler irrigation and micro-spraying, is prone to burning and burning roots. The root cause is that the fertilizer is too soluble. Therefore, when blending fertilizer concentration, it should be formulated in strict accordance with the concentration of the specification. However, due to the different salinity of water sources in different regions, the same concentration may occur in individual areas where burn leaves and roots occur. The safest method in production is to find the right fertilizer concentration in the region through the fertilizer concentration test.
Drip irrigation application precautions
Water-soluble fertilizer is applied along with drip irrigation and is the most common method in current production.
1. Shantou to the end. First, drip the water, add the fertilizer after the pipe is filled with water, to avoid the first stage without fertilizer; immediately after the end of fertilization, drip the water for 20-30 minutes, and drain all the residual fertilizer in the pipeline (use the conductivity meter to monitor whether it is completely discharged); If you do not wash the tube, you may grow lower plants or microorganisms such as moss and algae at the dripper, block the dripper, and damage the equipment.
2. Prevent the accumulation of salt on the surface. Long-term use of drip irrigation in greenhouses or greenhouses will cause the accumulation of surface salt and affect root growth. Under-film drip irrigation can be used to inhibit salt migration to the surface layer.
3. Do it evenly. In the principle of paying attention to uniform fertigation, the slower the better, the better. Especially for elements with poor mobility in soil (such as phosphorus), prolonging the fertilization time can greatly improve the utilization of difficult-to-move nutrients. In the dry season, drip fertigation is recommended, and the recommended time for fertilization is 2-3 hours. In the case that the soil is not dehydrated, the faster the better, on the premise of ensuring uniformity.
4. Avoid excessive irrigation. When the main purpose of fertilization is to irrigate, the depth of the root layer can be wetted. Different crop root depths vary widely, and the soil can be excavated at any time to understand the specific depth of the root layer. Excessive irrigation not only wastes water but also causes nutrients to dialysis below the root layer, crops can not be absorbed, waste fertilizer; especially urea, nitrate-nitrogen fertilizer (such as potassium nitrate, calcium ammonium nitrate, nitro phosphate fertilizer and water solubility containing nitrate-nitrogen) Fertilizer) is extremely easy to lose with water.
5. Cooperate with the application. Water-soluble fertilizer is a quick-acting fertilizer and can only be used as a top dressing. Especially in conventional agricultural production, water-soluble fertilizer is not a substitute for other conventional fertilizers. Therefore, in the production, the combination of base fertilizer and topdressing should be combined, organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer should be combined, and water-soluble fertilizer should be combined with conventional fertilizer to reduce the cost and exert the advantages of various fertilizers.